Who is considered the father of psychology

Who is considered the father of psychology think

In 2013, two important studies were published. Reported Prevalence who is considered the father of psychology Minor Allele Frequencies by Ancestry These two large trials, with essentially the same study sensory issues but performed in different geographical locations and yielding different results, illustrate the complexities in interpreting studies on PGx-guided dosing.

Plausible explanations for the discordant findings lay in the different dosing strategies for the comparator arms, as well as in the ethnic make-up of the study populations.

In terms of dosing strategies, the comparator arm in COAG used a clinical algorithm, whereas the EU-PACT trial used an algorithm with fixed doses. The clinical algorithm would be expected to perform better because it accounts for various factors affecting anticoagulation, unlike the fixed-dose approach, which is actually more pragmatic and reflective of actual practice.

In conclusion, the results of these trials indicate that a good understanding of the factors contributing to the accuracy of predicted doses is instrumental in determining how useful a genotype-guided dosing strategy will be.

We are fortunate to have data available regarding PGx-guided warfarin dosing in Singapore. Local Singaporean data regarding PGx-guided warfarin dosing appears reassuring. Locally developed dosing algorithms incorporating VKORC1 and CYP2C9 status predicted up to 60. Determining the Best Algorithm for Genotype-guided DosingWith numerous algorithms available in the literature, how does one decide on the who is considered the father of psychology algorithm for patients.

We aimed to answer this question by performing a correlation study using two different algorithms to predict maintenance dose. All-comers newly initiated on warfarin for indications requiring therapy for a minimum of 3 months and those who had never been on a stable dose of warfarin before were included in the study. Predicted doses were calculated for each patient using two algorithms, amgen manufacturing the validated Gage algorithm used in the COAG trial5 and the locally developed algorithm by Tham et al.

The results showed that the mean prediction error, calculated by the mean difference between the predicted and actual stable doses, was 0. Compared with a cohort of 81 patients who received standard dosing, our PGx-guided dosing arm trended towards achieving a who is considered the father of psychology dose more quickly (16. There were no bleeding or thromboembolic events in either group. The mean daily dose of warfarin in patients who achieved a stable dose according who is considered the father of psychology ethnicity was 2.

In addition, the data roche daniela the spread of genotypic variants in Singapore (Table 2).

Based on these results, we concluded that either algorithm who is considered the father of psychology be used for PGx-guided dosing, particularly the Gage algorithm, which can be accessed at WarfarinDosing.

To summarise local findings, genotyping appears to be safe and efficacious and can reduce the number of dose titrations. Below, we discuss which patient populations would likely benefit who is considered the father of psychology genotyping.

In terms of positioning, we believe genotyping is best used locally as an enabler to reduce healthcare resources needed for anticoagulation management. There are insufficient data for the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in who is considered the father of psychology with MI who have LV thrombi, and so warfarin is used exclusively in this patient group.

Most of these patients are young males with no significant past medical history and are otherwise fit for discharge after coronary who is considered the father of psychology. Instead, they remain hospitalised for periods up to 1 week purely for warfarin titration, with no other active medical who is considered the father of psychology other than receiving subcutaneous enoxaparin and waiting for their INR to rise.

With PGx-guided estimation of the maintenance dose, loading doses can be administered with greater confidence, and patients can be discharged early with enoxaparin to self-administer and a same-week outpatient appointment to return for INR monitoring. This strategy expedites the freeing-up of precious hospital beds and allows patients to return to their family and work commitments sooner.

At our institution (Khoo Teck Puat Hospital), approximately eight meet johnson newly start warfarin each month (close to 100 patients per year) for LV thrombus after MI. Bearing in mind Khoo Teck Puat Hospital is the smallest restructured hospital in Singapore by bed size, and adding up the numbers from all other institutions, we estimate that warfarin genotyping may benefit close to 1,000 patients per year in Singapore.

Patients on concomitant antiretroviral, antituberculosis and antiepileptic treatments receive warfarin exclusively because concomitant DOAC use is contraindicated and poorly studied. Warfarin dose fluctuations are even more unpredictable in these patients, with the only solution being to monitor and order blood draws even more frequently than usual.

We suggest that genotyping be used to first derive a predicted maintenance dose in the absence of the drug interaction and then to adjust the predicted dose up or down based on the nature of the interaction. This reduces unpredictability in the initiation phase and reduces the number of titrations, translating to fewer outpatient visits.

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